The Common Law is the law created by decisions of judges, which act as binding precedents for later decisions. It is a system that applies in many countries that inherited their legal system from England. Although now largely superseded by legislation at Commonwealth and State levels, the Common Law continues to provide important principles that directly impact upon and shape the Australian environmental legal system. For example the concept of standing the legal right to commence court action has often been a major constraint on public interest litigation to protect the environment. Environmental legislation now often provides widened standing to protect the environment but where it does not the Common Law rules remain an obstacle. Native title, recognised by the High Court as part of the Common Law in Mabo v Queensland No 2 CLR 1, also has immensely important implications for the environmental legal system. As a practical example, the Federal Court found in the Croker Island Case that the native title and interests of the claimant group were:. As the recognition of native title by the High Court and later application by other courts show, the Common Law provides important foundational principles for the Queensland environmental legal system.
Ages of consent in Oceania
This guidance is to help registered health practitioners understand and meet their obligations when using social media. Social media is a term that is constantly evolving but generally refers to internet-based tools that allow individuals and groups to communicate, to advertise or share opinions, information, ideas, messages, experiences, images, and video or audio clips. They may include blogs, social networks, video and photo-sharing sites, wikis, or a myriad of other media, used for 1 :.
A primary objective of the National Registration and Accreditation Scheme the National Scheme is to protect the public.
Significantly, incorporating 20 interviews across Australia, the LAW Survey is the largest legal needs survey to date conducted anywhere in the world.
This section provides details of the separation requirements for divorce. Australian law has the principle of no-fault divorce. This means that a court does not consider why the marriage ended, and you just need to satisfy the Court that you and your spouse have been separated for at least a year, and there is no reasonable chance of resuming married life.
Separation is when you and your partner stop living together in a domestic or marriage-like relationship. You and your partner do not need to agree for separation to happen. You might need to be able to show that you have separated, and when you separated, for example, if you want a divorce. The date of separation may also be relevant in property settlement proceedings. It is possible to live together in the same home and still be separated. For more information on this, see separation under one roof.
You may have to provide additional evidence that you were separated despite continuing to live together. You do not need to do anything in particular for your separation to be legal.
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Any sexual activity without your agreement is unlawful. The legal age for consent for having sex in Queensland is This strict age limit is in place to help protect you from harm. Find out more about when I can have sex. If someone tries to have sex with you without your agreement this may be considered sexual assault or rape and you should report it to the police. You can also get support from a range of sexual assault support services.
In Western Australia, the legal age for males and females to consent to sexual activity is 16 years of age. If you have sex with someone who is under 16 years of.
In July, the Australian government released the first draft of a new code of conduct managing the way tech giants deal with local media companies, which includes requiring them to pay for content. Google was predictably unhappy with this development, and has now responded to the proposed laws by speaking directly to its Australian users. In an open letter addressed to Australians on Monday, Google claimed the mandatory code will give news media an “unfair advantage” over all other websites, as well as threaten Google’s free services.
A link to the letter currently appears at the bottom of Chrome’s New Tab page for users in Australia. Google Australia also published a blog post specifically appealing to Australian YouTubers, while YouTube’s official Twitter encouraged people internationally to write to the Australian government in protest. Silva’s claims aren’t completely fanciful, but they require a very broad, punitive interpretation of the proposed laws.
Under Australia’s new draft code, tech companies such as Google and Facebook must give news businesses advance notice of algorithm changes that could impact how many people see their articles — changes which can mean the difference between life and death for a media website. However, Google claims supplying news websites with such information would help them to “artificially inflate” their ranking, “even when someone else provides a better result. Google also claims the law will force it to give news websites data on how users use Google and YouTube.
In actuality, the legislation specifies that it only concerns data that’s relevant to determining exactly how much of a benefit the tech giant is getting from news websites’ content, enabling them to negotiate payment while knowing all the facts. According to the ACCC, Google will not have to charge for its services nor give more user data to local media companies “unless it chooses to do so. Google Search and YouTube are now at risk in Australia. The Australian government ordered the ACCC to develop the mandatory code of conduct in April , after local media companies claimed Google and Facebook had been dragging their feet on negotiating a voluntary agreement.
The proposed law is intended to address the imbalance of bargaining power between tech giants and Australian news businesses, laying out rules on areas of concern like ranking news content, data sharing, and payment.
Sexual boundaries in the doctor-patient relationship
In a global first, White Ribbon Australia has opened its Ambassador program up to researchers. Conducted in by Kenton Bell and Claire E. Seaman, this case study shows the key role men can play in violence prevention. These papers are written by independent academics and policy makers. This paper explores the essential principles required for the development of an effective violence prevention framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men and boys, to reduce and prevent violence against women and children.
Countries that inherited their legal system from France, which has a system known as “Civil Law” dating from Napoleonic times, place much less weight on.
Consensual sex is when both parties are of legal age, agree to engage in intercourse by choice, and have the freedom and capacity to make that choice. This means agreeing to sexual relations without fear, coercion, force or intimidation. Giving consent is active, not passive. In Western Australia, the legal age for males and females to consent to sexual activity is 16 years of age. If you have sex with someone who is under 16 years of age it is a crime.
It is also a crime to have a sexual relationship with someone under 18 years of age if you have a relationship of authority with them, for example, you are their teacher or employer. If someone is not able to give consent to sex, regardless of their age, it is a crime to have a sexual relationship with them. People who cannot give consent are those who are:.
This publication is provided for education and information purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical care.
Current Class Actions
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The New South Wales Law Reform Commission has recommended reforms to the state’s laws on consent, including: “We propose that the law.
Deciding to have sex with someone is a big decision. If you think that you are ready to have sex, it is important that you know what the law says about how old you have to be to be able to legally agree to have sex. Remember, it is never okay for someone to force you to have sex without your permission — you have the right to say no at any time. The age of consent is the age at which the law says you can agree to have sex.
Fernanda practised law for eight years, working in criminal defence, child protection and domestic violence law in the Northern Territory. She also practised in family law after moving to Brisbane in The laws about what age a young person can validly consent to sex are different in each state and territory. In Victoria, like in the majority of jurisdictions, the age of consent stands at
In South Australian and Tasmania it is The reason for age of consent laws are for the protection of children from sexual predation and.
Most Australian businesses use advertising to promote their goods and services. Whether they advertise through television, radio, the internet or print media, they must ensure that their advertising complies with the law. Advertising and selling practices have evolved rapidly. These practices no longer occur solely through traditional print media, television or a shop front.
Advertising and selling occurs widely in the online environment, such as through email, social media, apps, online shopping sites, price comparison sites, review platforms and search engines. Businesses that operate online have the same rights and obligations as those that operate traditional bricks and mortar stores. Businesses need to ensure that their online sales practices comply with the Act. Good sales practices lead to consumer satisfaction and a more successful business.
The rights and obligations set out in the ACL are aimed at ensuring businesses operate on a level playing field when selling goods and services to consumers. This guide also provides examples of conduct that is likely to breach the ACL and practical tips for advertising and selling. It addresses marketing techniques and channels including:.
Ivory, rhino horn and other elephant and rhino products
The safety of Australian families during these challenging times is very important. Information on COVID impacts on services and supports available to help families is available here. Under Australian family law, children have a right to enjoy a meaningful relationship with both their parents, and to be protected from harm. A court is required to give greater weight to the consideration of the need to protect children from harm.
Under Australian family law, children have a right to enjoy a meaningful Jesse and Shayna were in a dating relationship for five months, during which time.
Parties and lawyers to a class action can register on the Commonwealth Courts Portal CCP to access information about the case, including documents filed, scheduled listing events and orders made. Accessibility Links Skip to main navigation Skip to sub navigation Skip to main content. Search Field. Powers of a Registrar. Court Sitting Dates 3 February – 18 December. Email Updates Register to receive daily court lists by email soon after they are published.
Judges’ Speeches Including Welcome and Farewell ceremonies. What is a Notice to Produce? Appeals From courts From other bodies Full Courts. Case Management Handbook. Communication Devices. If you are not a party or a lawyer, you can: Check the Applicant’s lawyer’s website, or Apply to the Court for inspect the documents – see Access to Court Documents for details on how to apply and any restrictions on such applications.
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Fernanda practised law for eight years, working in criminal defence, child protection and domestic violence law in the Northern Territory. She also practised in family law after moving to Brisbane in The criminal laws of different states and territories across Australia are notorious for their lack of consistency.
One example of this is the age of consent for sexual acts. While the age of consent is 16 in the majority of jurisdictions, it is 17 in South Australia and Tasmania.
The ages of consent for sexual activity vary by jurisdiction across Australia, New Zealand and other parts of Oceania, ranging from age 15 to age The specific activity engaged in or the gender of its participants can also be affected by the law. Below is a discussion of the various laws dealing with this subject.
We all have sexual rights and responsibilities. We all have the right to decide when, where, in what situation, and with who we would like to be sexual with. We all have the responsibility to make sure that the people we want to be sexual with actively consent to whatever sexual activities you do together. People might consent to one thing or a few things, but not to others. People might consent to begin with, and then change their mind.
Sexual consent means only doing something sexual because everyone involved really wants to and are making an active choice to be involved and continue, not because anyone is feeling pressured or unsure.
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Are you planning to move elephant or rhino products into or out of Australia? Elephant and rhino products coming into or leaving Australia as either a.
For example, there are offences against young children—under the age of 10, 12 or 13 years of age, depending on the jurisdiction  —and offences against older children—generally under the age of 16,  but in some cases 17,  or 18 years of age. Accordingly, the sentences attached to those offences are higher than for those against older children. For example, in NSW, different penalties are provided where the child is under the age of 10 years 25 years imprisonment ; between the ages of 10 and 14 years 16 years imprisonment ; and between the ages of 14 and 16 years 10 years imprisonment.
Historically, there were significant inconsistencies within and across jurisdictions with respect to the age of consent—the age at which young people are considered able to consent to sexual activity— based on gender, sexuality and other factors. Despite significant reforms, some inconsistency remains. For example, Victorian legislation provides that a person must not take part in an act of sexual penetration with a person whom he or she knows to be:.
Legal Aid NSW noted that.